Amoxil (Amoxicillin)

Amoxil (amoxicillin) is an antibiotic with penicillin, which is struggling with bacteria in your organism.

People use this medicine to cure infections of different types that bacteria caused. These can be infections of bladder and ear, gonorrhea, salmonella infection or E. coli and pneumonia. Sometimes doctors prescribe Amoxil with antibiotic Clarithromycin (Biaxin). These two antibiotics are useful to cure ulcers in stomach that happened due to infection of Helicobacter pylori. They use this solution with Lansoprazole or Prevacid which is reducing stomach acid.

Amoxil refers to the aminopenicillins, a group of medication which is a part of beta-lactam antibiotics class. This name was given to this larger group because the structure of these antibiotics contains "lactam". The antibiotic prevents bacteria to form cell walls and they die eventually.

You can find Amoxil in chewable tablets, oral suspension (liquid), capsules, pediatric drops or tablets. Patients with most conditions take the medicine twice or three times a day. Patients with gonorrhea take one or two pills a day.






Uses

Throat infections
Throat infections
People use antibiotic, Amoxicillin for treating the following list of infections:
  • Nasal infections
  • Strep throat or throat infections
  • Infections of helicobacter pylori, usually happens to people that have a little ulcers of intestine
  • Gonorrhea
  • Sinusitis
  • Infections of urinary tract, for example infections of kidney or bladder
  • Infections of tract for respiration, like pneumonia
  • Infections of ears

It is approved to use Amoxicillin for curing infections that are listed above when they occurred by bacteria of certain types. There are bacteria that do not react to amoxicillin. Bacteria can also react differently depending on the region of the country, meaning that some of them will react sensitively in one parts of the country and in the others, they will not. It will not bring any effect if you will take Amoxicillin to cure viral diseases, like flu or an ordinary cold.

Your doctor will need to verify if amoxicillin will resist or sustain the infection that consists in your body. That is why he needs to do some tests to verify it. If the infection is not very strong, your doctor may prescribe amoxicillin without making these tests.

You should remember that most people that have mononucleosis and receive antibiotics like amoxicillin happen to have an eruption on skin. That is why it is forbidden to take this medicine by patients that have mononucleosis.

Amoxicillin Use in Children


Little kids and babies are allowed to take Amoxicillin. Anyway, you still need to consult your doctor if your children can use it. The drug is sold for children in chewable pills and in liquid.

Off-Label Amoxicillin Uses


There can be cases when your doctor could prescribe this medicine for a patient that have a condition that is not included in this text. The medicine can cure other kinds of infection, especially if this infection appeared due to bacteria that is amoxicillin sensitive. It is possible when patients take the medicine to avert other types of infection. This type of medication is called an off-label amoxicillin use.


Dosage

Taking Amoxil
Taking Amoxil
 
Under various conditions, different doses of Amoxil can be recommended. As a rule, such factors as body weight, the type of bacteria which the infection is caused by, and the type and severity of disease are all estimated by doctor prior to determining the right dose. Patients are advised to strictly observe the prescribed dosage. It is preferable to distribute the doses over the day in equal intervals (12-hour interval when taking the medicine twice a day, or 8-hour interval when taking it thrice a day).

Stopping the treatment course of Amoxil before prescription is finished may lead to unwanted consequences, for example bacteria can become resistant to Amoxil and other antibiotics.

Below are guidelines regarding treatment with Amoxil:
  • To treat the majority of conditions, the medicine is taken 2-3 times a day by mouth (the exception is gonorrhea, against which a one-time dose is prescribed).
  • Amoxil can be taken on empty stomach or with your regular meal. Should you have problems regarding stomach, take it with the food.
  • Always shake pediatric drops or the oral suspension well before taking them. If you store the drops and suspension in the fridge, their taste will be better.
  • If necessary, a dose of pediatric drops or the oral suspension can be mixed with fruit juice, milk, water, or other cold drinks. After mixing, the whole solution should be taken at once.
  • To ensure the medicine takes effect, the prescription must be observed. The treatment with Amoxil will fail if you stop the course abruptly.
  • Seek advice your pharmacist, doctor, or nurse whenever you are in doubt about the right dosage of Amoxil.


Retailed strengths and forms


Amoxil dosages
Amoxil dosages
 
Capsules: 0.25 g, 0.50 g. capsules, equipped with pink opaque body and blue opaque cap, contain 0.25 g or 0.50 g amoxicillin in the form of trihydrate. The body and cap of the 0.25 g capsule wear Amoxil label along with number 250; while the body and cap of the 0.5 g capsule wear labels Amoxil along with number 500.

Suspension Powder comes in: 125 mg/5 mL, 200 mg/5 mL, 250 mg/5 mL, and ultimately 400 mg/5 mL. Suspension is flavored with a bubble-gum scent, while each 5 mL contains 125 mg, 200 mg, 250 mg or 400 mg amoxicillin in the form of trihydrate.

Pills: 500 mg, 875 mg. A pill incorporates 500 mg or 875 mg amoxicillin in the form of trihydrate. Pills are pink in color and coated with thin film, while wearing an embossed label of Amoxil and the dose number. The 875-mg pill is embossed on the back side.


Warnings and Precautions

Amoxil precautions
Amoxil precautions
Among considerations to take when going for treatment with Amoxil are the following:
  • Don't forget to inform your doctor about any kidney diseases, as this will require Amoxil dose adjustment.
  • Amoxil is based on an antibiotic from the penicillin family. In case of penicillin allergy, you cannot be treated with Amoxil, as the resulting reaction can prove to be life-threatening. Should you notice the least signs of swelling of the lips or mouth, rash, hives, itching, wheezing, breathing becoming difficult, inform your doctor without delay.
  • Chewable Amoxil pills are made with phenylalanine. This is the fact to be aware of if you have phenylketonuria and thus required to keep track of phenylalanine consumption. The rest of Amoxil forms contain zero phenylalanine.
  • The principle of action of antibiotics (including Amoxil) in particular implies reducing numbers of "favorable" bacteria that help fending off yeast infections. Should you notice development of a thrush (a mouth cavity yeast infection) or vaginal yeast infection during treatment with Amoxil, inform your doctor at once.
  • Any signs of watery or bloody diarrhea should be immediately reported to healthcare provider. Although minor diarrhea is among known side effects of Amoxil, extensive diarrhea may point out an unintended reaction of the body to Amoxil, which happens in case the colon is overfilled with Clostridium difficile bacteria. This reaction can be dangerous and may possibly reveal itself even after stopping Amoxil treatment.
  • Amoxil is not capable of treating viral infections including the flu or the common cold. It has zero effect on viruses, even worse, it can provoke developing bacterial resistance to the medicine.
  • Importance of observing the prescription cannot be stressed enough. Bacterial resistance to Amoxil can be developed in case a patient skips doses randomly or stops taking the medicine without the doctor's instruction to do so.
  • Amoxil is transferred with breast milk. Prior to making decision on Amoxil treatment, ask your doctor about considerations regarding breastfeeding.
  • As a rule, people diagnosed with mononucleosis are not advised to take Amoxil. If they do, the risk of rash development gets higher.
  • Amoxil can alter the effects of other medications.
  • Amoxil belongs to Pregnancy Category B medicine. This implies the medicine is not likely to have harmful effects during pregnancy, however the total risks are not estimated. Your doctor can provide information on pros and cons of taking Amoxil while being pregnant.

You should keep yourself from taking Amoxil in case you have an allergy to amoxicillin, penicillin, Amoxil, or any auxiliary components found in the antibiotic composition. The list of auxiliary ingredients can be requested from a pharmacist or your doctor.


Side Effects

Amoxil side effects
Amoxil side effects
No exception from regular medicines, Amoxil is known to potentially cause several side effects. Note that these effects are experienced only by small amount of people who take the medicine. Most patients don't experience any side effects. Generally, side effects are limited to minor ones, which can be treated by the doctor or even do not require treatment.

Below is the list of some potential side effects with Amoxil. If you notice one of these effects, consult your doctor at once:
  • Signs of liver dysfunction, for example skin or eyes turning yellow (jaundice), dark urine, or upper right intestinal pain
  • Bloody or watery diarrhea (potentially can reveal even after stopping the Amoxil course)
  • A thrush (mouth cavity yeast infection) or vaginal yeast infection
  • Nervousness or agitation
  • Seizures

Be aware of spots of an allergic reaction as follows:
  • Hives
  • A sudden rash
  • Itching
  • Swelling without known reason (particularly in the throat, mouth, or lips)
  • Difficulties while breathing, or constant wheezing

Bothersome (not dangerous) side effects


Since Amoxil has been approved long time ago, it hasn't undergone thorough testing for side effects. Unlike newer medications, the list of Amoxil potential side effects description contains only vague information. Concluding what is stated in that description, possible Amoxil side effects are as follows:
  • A hairy, black tongue
  • Vomiting and Nausea
  • Hyperactivity
  • Sleeplessness
  • Diarrhea
  • Confusion
  • Changing tooth color
  • Dizziness

Changing tooth color to grayish, brownish or yellowish is usually spotted with children, and can be reverted by cleaning or usual tooth brushing.


Mechanism of action

Amoxil formula
Amoxil formula
 
Amoxil's action is technically suspending the bacteria's cell walls synthesis. It prevents linear peptidoglycan polymer chains from being cross-linked, thus depriving bacteria of a major element involved in cell walls synthesis of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

The medicine comprises 2 ionizable groups (the carboxyl group and the alpha-positioned amino group to the amide carbonyl group) within the physiological variety.


History

The credit for discovery of amoxicillin in 1972 went to scientists at Beecham Research Laboratories. On the territory of the US the medicine is trademarked by the inheritor company GlaxoSmithKline. The original trade mark is Amoxil.

While achieving good results with penicillin in terms of antimicrobial effect, the medical researchers continued searching for its derivatives which could be used against a greater set of infections. The notable breakthrough in this venue was the deriving of ampicillin. This medicine was characterized by a wider spectrum of effects compared to the original penicillin, thus liberating the doctors in choosing an appropriate treatment for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive infections.

After that, ampicillin was improved leading to appearance of amoxicillin, which featured greater duration of the effect. Chemically, it only has an extra hydroxyl group added to the benzene ring.


Generic Amoxil

GlaxoSmithKline has established the Amoxil trademark. At the same time, the patent is expired and various nonproprietary products exist at the market. In particular it is manufactured by Teva Pharmaceuticals, Sandoz, and Apothecon Laboratories. Similarly to the original, the generic Amoxil comes in a number of strengths and different forms (chewable tablets, capsules, oral suspension, and pills).


Storage

Acceptable temperature for storing 125 and 250 mg Amoxil suspension powder and capsules is 20°C (68°F) or below; 200 and 400 mg suspension powder, chewable and simple tablets are stored well at temperatures up to 25°C (77°F). Chewable tablets, unreconstituted powder as well as Trimox capsules should be stored at room temperature 15°-30°C (59°-86°F). After solving the powder in water, the preferable storage would be in the fridge, but it is not a requirement. If such solution is stored for over 2 weeks, it should be discarded.


Drug Interactions

Usage methotrexate birth control pills or some other antibiotics together with Amoxil can provoke unwelcome drug interactions. Such interactions can have following consequences: it can provoke a reduction of efficiency of the drugs or it can increase the risk of progressing allergic reactions or different kind of side effects in your body. Important, you need to consult your personal doctor about all possible drug interactions with Amoxil in order to prevent unnecessary side effects.

Potentially Amoxil can interact with a few other drugs. Following drugs may cause different interactions with Amoxil:
Amoxil drug interactions
Amoxil drug interactions
 
  • Allopurinol (Aloprim, Zyloprim)
  • Birth control pills
  • Other antibiotics:
    • Chloramphenicol
    • Macrolides, such as azithromycin (Zithromax), clarithromycin (Biaxin), erythromycin (Ery-Tab)
    • Sulfonamides ("sulfa drugs"), including sulfadiazine, sulfadoxine (Fansidar), sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra), sulfisoxazole (Gantrisin)
    • Tetracyclines
  • Methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexal)
  • Oral typhoid vaccine
  • Probenecid (Benuryl)
  • Warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven)

Birth control pills
Recently studies have shown that usage antibiotics together with birth control pill do not reduce the effectiveness of birth control pills. But, there have been cases of failure among women who have used such interaction of drugs (be careful!). So if you use birth control pills talk to your doctor. Maybe you will need to change birth control pills.

Allopurinol (Zyloprim, Aloprim)
If you combine Amoxil with this drug, you will increase the opportunity of risk of different allergic reactions or even skin rashes. You need to ask your doctor about probability of usage these two drugs together.

Other antibiotics
In theory usage of Amoxil together with certain other antibiotics can make the effectiveness of Amoxix less visible. You need to speak about it with your doctor.

Oral typhoid vaccine
Usage Amoxil together with oral typhoid vaccine can decrease the effectiveness of the second one. Be careful if you have consumed Amoxil lately or you are using it now, your oral typhoid vaccine may need to be put off (at least for one day).

Methotrexate (Trexall, Rheumatrex)
Such drug interaction can provoke growth of blood levels. It can happen because the ability of body to dispose methotrexate will be reduced. That is why you need to take medical advice. Maybe you will need to monitor your body more carefully.

Warfarin
Usage warfarin together with Amoxil can provoke the risk of bleeding (according to reports of INR). You need to take medical advice before usage these drugs together. INR is always monitoring and maybe you will need to have dosage adjustment.

Probenecid (Benuryl)
Such drug interaction can decrease your body's capability to dispose Amoxil out of blood and it may cause growth of blood levels of Amoxil. Talk with your doctor is it possible for you to take these drugs together.

General keywords

User discussion about Amoxil

Victor
27 March 2012
My child was prescribed Amoxicillin because of the sore throat. But I have heard that using antibiotics can cause dysbiosis. Should I give my daughter kefir or other sour milk products to avoid it?
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Linda
27 March 2012
Victor I think you'd better give sour milk products to your child in order to keep the intestinal microflora healthy. Give the child as much liquid (tea, juices, milk) as possible. And if you started treatment with antibiotics, give it for at least 5 days.
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Dolly
22 June 2012
I would like to thank the producers of amoxicillin. I had a pharyngitis - the temperature was 39-40. The pain in the throat was so strong that I could neither speak nor swallow. I usually try to avoid antibiotics, but this time I had to take Amoxicillin. The effect was startling. 2 days later there was only a mild sore throat, which a day has passed. Thank you.
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Tristan
28 October 2012
I was sick with bladder infection before. The day didn't end, but I began to feel much better. It makes me realy happy because the disease didn't let me live my normal life during 6 days. The result is incredible since I didn't have any side effects, because I had horrible reaction when I took Cipro. This is good that my condition is better after other medicine.
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