10 Symptoms of Urinary Infection

The three existing types of urinary tract infections are classified as follows:
  • 1. When the infection affects the kidneys, it is pyelonephritis.
  • 2. When the infection touches the bladder, it is cystitis.
  • 3. When the infection touches the urethra, it is urethritis.

The signs and symptoms of urinary infections vary depending on the structure of the affected urinary tract. Kidney infections, for example, often cause high fever and low back pain. Bladder infections do not occur with fever but can cause intense pain when urinating.

Urinary tract
Urinary tract
 


Signs and symptoms


1. Pain during urination (dysuria)


Pain during urination, called dysuria, may be the most common symptom of urinary tract infection. The term dysuria encompasses different complaints during urination, such as pain, burning, burning, discomfort or feeling of heaviness in the bladder.

The trouble to urinate is a very common symptom in cystitis and urethritis, which may occur in pyelonephritis. It is caused by irritation of the bladder and urethra caused by infection.

In women, gynecological infections can cause pain to urinate, either by inflammation in the area around the entrance of the urethra, or by the pain that the contact of acidic urine with the inflamed vulva causes. The tip to think about gynecological infection instead of urinary infection is the presence of vaginal discharge.

When the patient has dysuria, the origin of the urinary tract infection is usually the urethra or bladder.

2. Blood in the urine (hematuria)


The presence of blood in the urine is called hematuria. Although blood in the urine is the most scary sign of urinary infection for patients, it is usually not a sign of seriousness.

Hematuria can be macroscopic, when it is easily noticed in the urine, or microscopic, which is only detectable through laboratory tests.

Although this signal is common in cystitis, it can also occur in pyelonephritis or urethritis. As with dysuria, the presence of blood arises from irritation of the bladder and urethra.

When the patient has hematuria, the source of the urinary tract infection may be the urethra, the bladder, or the kidneys.

3. Fever


When you think of infection, fever is always one of the signs that come to mind. In the urinary tract infection, however, fever usually only arises in cases of pyelonephritis. Cystitis usually causes no fever; when it does, it is usually below 38°C. Fever is also uncommon in urethritis, except in more severe cases where the bacterium spreads into the bloodstream.

In pyelonephritis, the fever is usually high, greater than 38ºC, and is often accompanied by chills. High fever usually differentiates pyelonephritis from other causes of urinary tract infection.

When the patient has a fever, the origin of the urinary tract infection is usually the kidneys.

4. Constant urge to urinate


Pollution - the need to urinate at all times - is also a common symptom of cystitis. This frequent urge to urinate, however, is characterized by a small volume of urine at each urination. Often, there is an apparent feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder. This false impression, in fact, stems from the irritation of this organ, not from the presence of urine.

When the patient has a constant or frequent desire to urinate, the origin of the urinary tract infection is usually the urethra or bladder.

5. Urethral discharge


The discharge of pus from the urethra is a typical sign of urethritis, almost always caused by a sexually transmitted disease. This urethral discharge is often accompanied by dysuria.

Both cystitis and pyelonephritis, in turn, do not cause this typical symptom of urethral infection.

In women with urethritis, urethral discharge may also be accompanied by vaginal discharge, since it is common for infections like gonorrhea and chlamydia to also cause inflammation of the vagina.

When the patient has urethral discharge, the origin of the urinary tract infection is usually the urethra.

6. Nausea and vomiting


Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms in pyelonephritis and usually appear along with fever. Cystitis, in turn, although it may cause malaise, does not usually cause vomiting. Loss of appetite is also common in pyelonephritis. Just like fever, nausea and vomiting usually only appear in the more advanced urethra.

When the patient has nausea and vomiting, the origin of the urinary tract infection is usually the kidneys.

7. Lower back pain


Lumbar pain, usually more intense on one side, is another common symptom of pyelonephritis. In fact, few diseases make the kidney hurt, with pyelonephritis being one of them.

Cystitis can also cause mild low back pain, but usually much less severe than in pyelonephritis.

When the patient has low back pain, the origin of the urinary tract infection is usually the kidneys.

8. Bad smell in the urine


Smelly urine may be a sign of the presence of bacteria, the source of which may be cystitis or urethritis. However, in most cases, bad odor only means very concentrated urine. Urea, a substance present in large amounts in the urine, is responsible for the characteristic odor of urine. If it is slightly diluted, the smell of urea becomes more noticeable.

When the patient has foul-smelling urine, the source of the urinary tract infection is usually the urethra or bladder.

9. Disorientation and changes in the state of consciousness


Pyelonephritis is a potentially serious case that can lead to generalized infection. If unrecognized and treated in time, the patient may begin to show neurological signs, such as disorientation, prostration and even lowering of consciousness level.

The elderly are the ones who most present this type of picture during a urinary tract infection. Often, there is no fever or other symptoms, the neurological change being the only clue that there is an ongoing infection.

When the patient has altered state of consciousness, the origin of the urinary tract infection is usually the kidneys.

10. Involuntary loss of urine


In addition to the constant urge to urinate, the patient with bladder infection may have difficulty holding urine. The individual feels like urinating, can not get to the bathroom in time and involuntarily loses urine. This signal is called urinary urgency and is very common in children and the elderly.

When the patient has urinary incontinence, the source of the urinary tract infection is usually bladder.

Symptoms of cystitis

In summary, the main symptoms of cystitis are:
  • Burning, pain or discomfort to urinate
  • Blood in the urine
  • Constant urge to urinate, even with the bladder empty (or almost empty)
  • Feeling of weight in the bladder
  • Urinary urgency (unable to hold urine until reaching bathroom)

Symptoms of pyelonephritis

In summary, the main symptoms of pyelonephritis are:
  • High fever
  • Chills
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Backache
  • Prostration
  • Disorientation (more common in the elderly)
  • Blood in the urine

Symptoms of urethritis

In summary, the main symptoms of urethritis are:
  • Purulent discharge through the urethra
  • Burning to urinate
  • Blood in the semen
  • Discomfort in the genitals
  • Pain during sex
  • Blood in the urine

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